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An Office of Science User Facility

Atomic, Molecular & Optical Science (AMO)



Scientific Capabilities

Scientific Application Atomic, Molecular and Optical Science with ultrafast and ultraintense X-rays at the LCLS
Techniques Electron time-of-flight spectroscopy
Ion time-of-flight spectroscopy
Ion imaging
Ion momentum spectroscopy
X-ray scattering
Sample Environment A variety of pulsed and continuous gas, liquid and particle injectors
pulsed Proch-Trickl, Even-Lavie or Parker gas valves with heating and cooling options
single or double skimmer chambers for gas beams
motorized XYZ paddle for solid samples
liquid jet for biological samples
aerosol jet of particulate samples



Photon Beam Properties

Focusing Capability Elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors
Beam Size at Sample ≥ 1um at interaction region
Energy Range 480 - 2000 eV
Energy Resolution ΔE/E ~0.5-1% (inherent FEL Bandwidth)
(No monochromator)
Photon Flux ≤ 1x1013 photons/pulse
Pulse Duration ~5 - 300 fs
Repetition Rate 10, 30, 60 or 120 Hz
​Polarization Linear in normal operation. Circular polarization with DELTA undulator possible with >1011 photons/pulse. Please contact a beamline scientist for details.​
​Self-Seeding ​Available between 500-1000 eV, with λ/Δλ > 5000 and pulse energy up to 100 μJ. Please contact a beamline scientist for details.
​Two-Pulse Modes ​​Possible two-pulse modes are described here. Please contact the beamline scientist for details.



Optical Laser Properties

Sample Configurations Pre-Mono Transmission Sample Chamber Endstation
Laser Power 20 mJ at 800 nm 20 mJ at 800 nm
25 mJ at 800 nm

25 mJ at 800 nm (uncompressed)

4-5 mJ at 400 nm

4-5 mJ at 400 nm

1 mJ at 266 nm 1 mJ at 266 nm

~100 uJ at 4-10 microns

(~70 uJ for longer wavelengths and ~120 uJ for shorter)


~ 50 uJ at 10-17 microns 

(~ 40 uJ for longer wavelengths and ~ 70 uJ for shorter)


~ 15 uJ at 75-1500 microns (4 to 0.2 THz)

Using LiNbO3 and DAST we have measured energies up to 30 uJ for 0.6 THz peak field and 5 uJ for 2 THz peak fields, but note these are still being developed.

Laser Pulse Width 35-150 fs at 800 nm 35-150 fs at 800 nm
150 ps at 800 nm

150 ps at 800 nm (uncompressed)

50-100 fs at 400 nm 50-100 fs at 400 nm

50-100 fs at 266 nm

50-100 fs at 266 nm

100-200 fs at 4-10 microns


100-200 fs at 10-17 microns 



 ~ 1ps at 75-1500 microns (4 to 0.2 THz)

Focusing Capability 1mm (1/e2) 50µm (1/e2)


Approximate laser system pulse energies with wavelenth

laser numbers.png




Fast Shutter A fast shutter to quickly turn on or off the beam or to select individual LCLS x-ray pulses. Closes or opens in <8 ms. The fast shutter is up stream of the first experimental position.
Alignment Laser (planned) A class II alignment laser beam coaxial with the FEL beam at the Endstation Position, to facilitate the positioning of samples in the FEL beam.
4 Jaw Slit 4 independently controlled B4C slit blades can be used to shape the beam upstream of the KB optics
Magnetic Bottle Electron Spectrometer Measures the photon energy and bandwidth of the X-rays with a high effeciency electron spectrometer
Pulse Energy Monitor Measures the energy of each pulse
Beam Screens Measures position and size of beam in the far field


SLAC SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA
Operated by Stanford University for the U.S. Dept. of Energy