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The table below summarizes the current sample handling capabilities at the LCLS. We are currently in the process of developing new sample delivery techniques, and users are encouraged to contact the Sample Environment Department to discuss requirements unique to their experiment - we are flexible.
We can provide nozzles for gas jets, liquid jets (Recirculating type), gas accelerated liquid jets (aka GDVN or Flow Focusing nozzle), and drop on demand/pulsed jets from our nozzle inventory. Specialized nozzles can also be made with advanced notice.
Gas dynamic virtual nozzles (GDVNs) are the most commonly used nozzles for serial crystallography experiments. They consist of concentric capillaries where the inner capillary carries the sample, and the outer capillary carries a high pressure gas to accelerate the sample forming a jet. Jet diameters are typically from 2 to 4 micron but can be made much smaller depending on the sample.
High viscosity jets are produced from nozzles very similar to those described above but require higher operating pressure. We have a high pressure sample injector consisting of a pressure amplifier, sample reservoir and nozzle that can operate to 15kpsi.
Rayleigh jets can be produced from straight channel nozzles down to 20 micron. Liquid may be recirculated for Rayleigh jet nozzles operating at ambient pressure. Mixing from up to 4 channels is also possible with Rayleigh jets.
Our drop on demand system is a MicfoFab droplet dispenser that can be timed to the arrival of the FEL pulse, greatly reducing sample consumption.
Our sample delivery system handles sample switching and remote control of all sample injection parameters. It consists of sample reservoirs and shakers, sample and gas handling manifolds, regulators and flow meters. All aspects of the system can be controlled remotely in EPICs, and the system is duplicated for use in multiple hutches and the ICL. The system is modular so that it can be configured to meet specific experimental needs, and can be used to deliver sample to most injectors. The EPICs control panel, pictured below, illustrates the sample and gas routing. Typically high pressure gas is used to drive a hydraulic piston that forces the sample through the system, however, HPLC pumps are also available for this purpose.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA
Operated by Stanford University for the U.S. Dept. of Energy