1) What is the photon energy range which LCLS can provide and how long does it take to switch?
At present, the available photon energy range is 270 eV up to about 9.5 keV. The photon energy is set by adjusting the linac electron energy, by switching off or adding klystrons. Such an energy adjustment also requires that the excitation currents in the various bending and focusing magnets be rescaled in order to maintain their electron bending angles and focal lengths. This rescaling, and a few other small adjustments, can require anywhere from 5 minutes (small energy adjustments of 5-50%) to 45 minutes (energy adjustments of a factor of 2-3). Currently, the average time to switch energy was about 40 minutes. In addition, some accelerator tuning may be required in order to re-establish the full x-ray pulse energy (e.g., to achieve more than 2 mJ may require another hour or more). This retuning is usually not necessary if the energy change is small (i.e., <50%) or if the energy is increased rather than decreased. Please ask the operator for a time estimate when requesting photon energy changes.
It is also possible to make very fast, but small photon energy changes of +-2% (relative photon wavelength) without requiring any other adjustments (although some small x-ray power variations may accompany this). Such fast energy control can be implemented directly by users in a programmed fashion. Please ask the operator for help setting this up.
A self-seeding option (Hard X-Ray Self-Seeding -- HXRSS) is presently available. This option generates a very high power photon pulse over a very narrow energy band-width. The energy range of this option is about 7.3-8.9 keV (1.4-1.7 A).
2) What is the highest pulse energy available (number of photons in the pulse) and how does it vary with photon energy and pulse length?
Answer : (9/25/13)
Typically the pulse energy is about 2 - 3 mJ, but operators, if given time (1-2 hrs), can frequently exceed this. Of course the number of photons in the pulse depends on the photon wavelength (energy). At 8.3 keV the highest number of photons in the pulse has been about 2E12, whereas at 830 eV the highest number of photons in the pulse is about 2E13. A linked plot ( figure ) shows number of photons vs photon energy from 250eV to 10keV and a second plot ( figure ) shows FEL energy in mJ vs photon energy.
If the electron bunch is further compressed in length (generating a shorter x-ray pulse), the number of photons in the x-ray pulse is reduced since the pulse is shorter. However, the increased peak current of the electron beam in the undulator makes a more efficient FEL (up to a limit) and therefore the number of photons in the pulse does not drop as fast as a simple pulse-length scaling might suggest. In fact, the peak x-ray power tends to rise as the electron bunch is further compressed, although not without limit. A linked plot (figure) shows the photon pulse energy and the photon peak power as the electron peak current is increased. Another plot shows the pulse energy vs electron peak current from May to August, 2010 (FEL vs photonEngy and bunch length).
3) Who do we contact, both before and during the experiment, to request changes or special parameters, and who do we contact for questions on x-ray beam characteristics?
Always ask your instrument scientist first and he/she will help you find the right persons.
4) What is the LCLS x-ray pulse length, how long does it take to change it, and how does the pulse energy and peak power vary with pulse length?
Answer : (1/14/14)
The x-ray pulse length is approximately a copy of the electron bunch length, which is set by the linac bunch compression parameters. A shorter electron bunch length produces a higher peak current in the undulator. At the shortest photon wavelengths (~8 keV) the peak current required to achieve FEL gain saturation is 3000 A or higher. However, at longer wavelengths (800 eV and below) a lower peak current is possible (down to 500 A). Therefore, the pulse length at longer wavelengths can be set at anywhere from 300 to 40 fs FWHM (i.e., 500 A to 4000 A at the nominal 150-pC bunch charge), but at the shortest wavelengths the pulse length must be no longer than 30-50 fs FWHM (i.e., 3000-5000 A) or the FEL power will be very low and quite unstable from shot to shot. At mid-range wavelengths the choice of pulse length range is proportionally wider, but more limited than at 800 eV. Currently (2013-2014) we have primarily been running with a bunch charge of 150 pC which shortens the nominal bunch charge range to 30-50 fs for the hard X-rays and about 250 fs for the soft X-rays.
Changing the pulse length (within these limits) is quite fast and can be accomplished in 1-2 minutes. In fact, the electron bunch length (actually the final peak current) is under closed loop control and the desired setting can easily be entered, with a minute or two required for full stabilization.
The total energy in the x-ray pulse depends on the pulse length. Less pulse energy is observed with a shorter pulse (keeping the electron bunch charge constant). However, the increased peak current of the electron beam in the undulator makes a more efficient FEL (up to a limit) and therefore the number of photons in the pulse does not drop as fast as a simple pulse-length scaling might suggest. In fact, the peak x-ray power tends to rise as the electron bunch is further compressed, although not without limit. A linked plot (figure) shows the photon pulse energy and the photon peak power as the electron peak current is increased (with a 250-pC constant bunch charge).
5) What is the degree of coherence of the x-ray pulse in both transverse and longitudinal directions and how is this affected by the choice of photon energy?
The x-ray pulse has good transverse coherence, since for normal operation the transverse coherence area is larger than the spot size. However, if the undulator has a significant misalignment or there is betatron (beam size) mismatch, the transverse coherence area can be reduced enough to degrade the transverse coherence.
The FEL does not have full temporal coherence. For the 150-pC bunch charge case (nominal), assuming an electron peak current of 5 kA (typical with hard x-rays) and a uniform current profile, then the electron duration is about 30 fs FWHM. Given the fact that the power e-folding length (gain length) is about 3.3 m and the saturation length is about 65 m, there are about 200 temporal spikes in the x-ray profile, which means that the frequency bandwidth is about 200 times larger than the transform limited bandwidth. For the low charge case (20 pC), the electron bunch length is very short (<10 fs), and hence there are about 30 spikes, i.e., the frequency bandwidth is about 30 times the transform limited bandwidth.
6) How does the x-ray transverse beam size vary with photon energy and electron peak current settings?
Answer : (03/05/14) JT
The x-ray transverse divergence and therefore beam size downstream of the undulator changes as a function of energy. The size at a given experiment will depend on the distance, source point, and divergence. See the table in FAQ answer 7 to get divergence. See an example of size versus energy in the middle of the FEE
(at the direct imager) in this figure.
7) Where is the approximate location of the x-ray source point along the undulator, how does this vary with photon energy and peak current, and how can we move this source point? In addition, what is the source size and divergence and how does this scale with photon energy and peak current?
The x-ray source point is located about 1-2 Rayleigh lengths upstream of the end of the last inserted undulator. The source point location can be moved further upstream by removing down-stream undulators (about 4 m per undulator). For a given undulator configuration, the relative source point location, i.e., the distance of the source point to the end of the last inserted undulator, as well as the rms source size and the far-field rms divergence depend on photon energy, electron beam charge, and peak current. For photon energies between 0.5 keV and 2.0 keV and for electron beam charges between 20 pC and 250 pC we estimate:
- the relative source point location to be between -2 m and -15 m (where negative numbers indicate here that the source is upstream of the end of the last inserted undulator),
- the far-field rms divergence to be between 6 µrad and 30 µrad, and
- the rms waist size to be between 11 µm and 25 µm.
The figures, linked below, show the rms waist size, the rms divergence, and the relative source point location (wrt the end of the last inserted undulator) all vs. photon energy:
Tables (2 keV , 4 keV , 6 keV , 8 keV ) of x-ray beam parameters as function of photon energy, bunch charge, and peak current is also available here.
8) Where are the direct imager and the “YAGXRAY” screens located with respect to the undulator exit?
Answer : (03/05/14)
Referring to the LCLS undulator coordinate system (LCLS-TN-03-8), which has its z-axis parallel to the electron beam in the undulator, some distances of interest are listed below (note that the "last undulator segment" is assumed to be number 33, while at times, some of the undulators are offline and the last segment is further upstream
YAGXRAY is 45 meters downstream of the end of the lastundulator (33).
DIRECT IMAGER is 87 meters downstream of the end
of the last undulator.
9) What is the shortest pulse length possible, how does this vary with photon energy, and what pulse energy is available at the shortest pulse? In addition, how long does it take to establish this pulse length and also to go back to nominal conditions? Can it be changed any time of day or night?
Answer : (02/04/14) - JW
LCLS delivers X-ray pulses with roughly 2 mJ of energy and 50 to 100 fs fwhm
duration. But there are two ways much
shorter pulses can be made, though at the expense of about a factor of ten in
energy per pulse. With the low charge method an electron bunch of 20 pC is maximally compressed and sent through the
undulator. The resulting x-ray bunch
length has a fwhm of 2-4 fs. Using the Slotted Foil method a small portion of a
full charge bunch lases to produce FEL radiation, while the rest of the bunch
is degraded and produces only spontaneous radiation. This results in an FEL
pulse similar to that of the low charge method. The XTCAV diagnostic, located
just after the undulator, can be used to measure x-ray pulse profiles on a
shot-to-shot basis. It has an intrinsic resolution of 1-4 fs, with better
resolution for longer wavelengths.
typically takes a couple of hours to change from normal operating mode to short
bunch mode, although it has been accomplished in as short as one hour. Returning to normal mode usually takes less
than an hour. Operations shifts are able
to perform the change in either direction at any time, but it is best to ask
for the change in advance to make sure resources are available.
10) What are the temporal characteristics of the x-ray pulse, including number of spikes, spike duration, peak power in each spike, and how does this vary with photon energy and peak current?
Answer : (02/03/14 - AB)
The temporal characteristics of the LCLS x-ray pulse are chaotic due to the SASE process. The x-ray pulse profile consists of many random spikes that vary from shot to shot. Typically the spike duration is about 1-2 fs for soft x-rays (280 eV to 2 keV) and down to 300 attoseconds for hard x-rays (8 keV). The total number of spikes is approximately the ratio of the x-ray pulse length (see item 4) to the spike duration. The peak power in each spike can be anywhere between 1-100 GW, depending on electron peak current, and can fluctuate from spike to spike. A linked figure shows the typical x-ray power profile at the wavelength of 0.15 nm and 1.5 nm, operated at under-compression mode with 250 pC. The current profiles of the electron bunch with double horns are also shown in the figure.
11) What is the bandwidth of the x-ray pulse and to what extent can it be minimized or maximized and how long does it take to make such changes? Can the x-ray pulse be energy chirped and if so, what is the final bandwidth available (FWHM)?
Answer : (4/19/12)
From simulations, we expect the minimum FWHM bandwidth is about 0.2% for the hard x-rays and 0.5% for the soft x-rays. The minimum bandwidth can be obtained with an electron bunch that is nominally compressed by the second bunch compressor (“under-compression”), and as the FEL just reaches saturation. Thus, one should be careful not to operate the FEL in the deep saturation regime and as many undulator sections as possible should be extracted, as long as the FEL power does not drop dramatically (say over a factor of 3). The maximum FEL bandwidth can be obtained by operating the second bunch compressor in the “over-compression” mode. In this case, the energy-chirped electron bunch drives a frequency-chirped FEL that has relatively large bandwidth. Again, simulations suggest that FWHM bandwidth up to 1% is possible for hard x-rays and up to 3% for soft x-rays. A linked figure shows the x-ray rms bandwidth along the undulator distance at the wavelength of 0.15 nm and 1.5 nm, operated at under-compression mode with 250 pC.
A soft x-ray spectrometer is located in SXR and can be used to measure the single-shot x-ray spectrum from 600 eV to 2 keV. A linked figure shows two typical SXR spectra around 1.2 keV at the nominal machine condition (when electron bunch is under-compressed in BC2).
In the hard x-ray region, a 4-bend crystal monochromator is used to measure the FEL spectra around 8 keV by scanning the electron energy (hence the measurement is multi-shot instead of single-shot). For examples, the left plot of this linked figure shows the FEL spectra when the electron beam is under-compressed in BC2 for several peak current values. The right plot shows the FEL spectra when the electron beam is over-compressed in BC2 (indicated by negative peak current values) and clearly demonstrate the spectral broadening effect due to the electron energy chirp.
12) What is the machine repetition rate at present? Is there a possibility to increase the rate beyond 120 Hz? Can a single pulse be triggered in a one-shot mode and can the experiment pull the trigger?
The machine repetition rate is 120Hz. There is no possibility to go beyond 120 Hz, although several electron bunches per 120-Hz RF pulse may be possible in the long term (~5 yrs). Single pulses can and have been triggered by experiments in a one-shot mode.
13) Can I trigger the x-ray beam from my own experiment when I want it rather than asking the main control center? If so, can I vary the trigger time in arbitrarily small increments without regard to the 120-Hz triggers (i.e., trigger the linac)?
No. This is not consistent with the design of the accelerator and would be very difficult, if not impossible to provide.
14) What is the shot-to-shot jitter I can expect of the pulse arrival time, pulse energy, photon wavelength, pulse length, and transverse pointing, and is there a set of parameters that can be used to minimize these?
Answer : (01/16/14) FJD
The shot to shot jitter for the x-ray pulse arrival time
(wrt the RF reference phase) is about 50 fs rms over 1-2 minutes, the photon
pulse energy or intensity jitter is about 3-15% (for 0.8-8 keV photons,
respectively), the relative rms photon wavelength jitter is about 0.16-0.07%
(for 0.8-8 keV photons, respectively, and based on measured electron beam
energy jitter of 0.08-0.035%), the photon pulse length jitter is about 7%. The transverse pointing jitter is about 5-10%
rms (for 0.8-8 keV photons, respectively), expressed here as a fraction of the
rms electron beam size. These stability
levels are reasonably accurate for the nominal 150-pC bunch charge, but can be
somewhat worse for the ultra-low charge (20 pC) configuration which produces
~10-fs x-ray pulse lengths that are much more sensitive to machine jitter.
15) What is the power level and angular spread of the spontaneous radiation? How is it discriminated from the FEL pulse, does it scale with photon energy and pulse length, and can it be minimized?
Answer : (12/14/09)
In the table below are examples of calculated spontaneous radiation power levels, given as x-ray pulse energy per shot, for the first three harmonics. These data are for an electron bunch charge of 250 pC with all undulator segments in-line. They should scale with charge and there is no dependence on pulse length.
Photon fundamental [eV]: 800 2000 8264
1st harmonic [uJ/shot]: 6.04 15.1 62.4
2nd harmonic [uJ/shot]: 8.81 (22.0) (91.0)
3rd harmonic [uJ/shot]: (10.5) (26.2) (108)
These numbers represent the amount of x-ray energy that gets through the gas attenuator apertures with the adjustable slits open to 4 mm full width, both horizontally and vertically. Typically the FEL energy is ~2 mJ/pulse for a 250-pC bunch charge, so the 1st harmonic spontaneous radiation is only a small fraction, ~0.3 - 3%, of the FEL energy, depending on the photon fundamental energy.
Photons with energy above 2200 eV are attenuated by the soft x-ray transport mirrors by at least a factor of 0.01 (see question 18 below). In the table above, parenthesis are put around harmonics which would be cut off by the soft x-ray mirror system before reaching the experimental hutch.
The angular distribution of the spontaneous radiation is somewhat complicated. All spontaneous radiation, no matter what photon energy, is confined (half-width) to roughly K/gamma, 1/gamma angles with respect to the x (horizontal) and y (vertical) planes.
Photon fundamental [eV]: 800 2000 8264
x' [urad]: 420 266 130
y' [urad]: 120 76 37
In practice the spontaneous x-rays completely fill the 4-mm round aperture defined by the hole in the center of each gas attenuator iris. This is shown visually for a 13.5 GeV (8 keV fundamental) beam in the linked figure. In this figure, only one gas attenuator valve was inserted, and spontaneous x-rays were able to penetrate it to simultaneously show both the incident distribution (mostly yellow) as well as the gas attenuator aperture (the red oval at the center).
The complicating feature of the angular distribution of the spontaneous radiation is the strong angle-energy correlation. X-rays at the fundamental wavelength are confined to a narrow angular cone that is roughly the size of the FEL beam. Of course there is only a small fraction of the spontaneous power in this narrow bandwidth. At larger angles the x-ray photon energy is reduced - a fact which can allow some higher harmonics to, at some angle, have the same energy as the fundamental.
To reduce the background from spontaneous x-rays the adjustable slits can be adjusted to fit around the much smaller FEL beam.
16) To what level can we suppress the FEL pulse in order to measure the spontaneous background? Does the suppression method affect the spontaneous emission?
FEL suppression can be accomplished by lowering the peak current of the electron beam (to 500 A, or below), by setting the laser heater power as high as possible (~200 uJ of IR laser energy), and by introducing one or more orbit kicks in the undulator. These methods don't have much effect on the spontaneous beam but, depending on the wavelength, may not be 100% affective in suppressing the FEL either. The shortest wavelengths are the easiest to suppress.
17) How much x-ray power attenuation can be applied, how long does it take to set that up, and does this change any of the characteristics of the x-ray pulse?
Three decades at each wavelength can be applied within a few seconds for hard xrays, however periodically some of the solid attenuators cause wave front distortion due to damage. We replace these as we find distortion, so check with your instrument scientist as to present useable attenuators. For soft xrays, three decades are available through the gas attenuator system. This typically takes a few minutes for adjustment.
18) What is the photon energy cutoff of the soft x-ray mirrors and how complete is the cutoff for energies above this threshold?
The photon energy cutoff of the soft X-ray mirrors is at approximately 2.2 keV. At photon energies below 2.1 keV, the mirrors
transmit about 30% of the FEL power to the near experimental hall, though by
design should transmit 66%. Calculation
indicates the first mirror would be destroyed at energies above 2.2keV with
typical intensities. That is a pretty complete cutoff.
19) Some years ago (2004) a “slotted-spoiler” method was described which was capable of producing 2-fs x-ray pulses, or two similar pulses with variable timing delay. Is this system implemented and tested, and if not, when could it be ready. What range of the two-pulse timing delay is possible and how many photons can be available in each pulse? Does it depend on photon energy?
Answer : (2/14/11) - YD
The slotted spoiler (Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 074801 2004) http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PRL/v92/i7/e074801
was installed at the LCLS in 2010, and it has been developed as a regular
operation mode for short pulse generation and pulse length control. It is
located at the middle of the second bunch compressor (BC2). Since no machine
configuration changes are needed to set up slotted-foil mode, it provides a
fast way (a few minutes to check the foil horizontal alignment) for X-ray pulse
Three slot arrays are widely used, one single-slot array and
two double-slot arrays. By choosing the slot width or slot separation, the
single pulse duration or double-pulse delay can be controlled. It also depends
on the BC2 bunch current. A Matlab-based GUI is used to control the foil and to
calculate the unspoiled electron bunch duration or delay. At BC2 current of 1 kA, the pulse duration
from the single slot can be adjusted from 16 fs to 60 fs; and the pulse delay
from the double slots ranges from 38 fs to 83 fs. At BC2 current of 4 kA, the
pulse duration from the single slot ranges from -------, and the double-pulse
delay ranges from ----.
Measurements of the X-ray pulse duration from the foil are
very challenging. Cross-correlation measurements have been made (Phys. Rev.
Lett., 109, 254802 2012). The number of photons in the pulse scales roughly
linearly with the selected slot width (photon pulse duration). So for example, if the pulse length is
established at 100 fs with 1E12 photons per pulse, and then the single-slotted
foil is inserted to generate a 5-fs pulse, the number of photons will drop to
about 5%, or 5E10. Further measurements with the recently commissioned X-band
transverse cavity will be performed soon.
20) When will lower photon energies be available, down to the level of about 280 eV?
Photon energy down to about 280eV was first delivered to users in October 2012. This capability is available to the AMO and SXR instruments but advanced notice is required to ensure proper resources are in place.
21) How much 2nd and 3rd FEL harmonic power usually accompany the fundamental FEL pulse and how does this vary with photon energy?
Simulations show the FEL can contain a 3rd harmonic component as high as 1% of the power of the fundamental wavelength, and a 2nd harmonic component as high as 0.05% of the fundamental. At present (11/30/09), the measurements are still preliminary, with measurements of the 3rd harmonic component at 0.1-0.5% for fundamental photon energies between 2.8 keV and 8.5 keV. For fundamental photon energies between 900 eV and 1.1 keV, a 2nd harmonic component has been measured at 0.03-0.05% of the fundamental power. These results will be repeated and expanded in the near future.
23) What is the capital of Nebraska and how do I get there?
22) What should I know about the XTCAV and what can I do with it?
An X-band transverse deflecting cavity (XTCAV) was installed downstream of the LCLS undulator beamline and tested in early 2014 for user operation. This device measures the electron bunch time-energy phase space distribution. Since it is located after the undulator, time-resolved FEL lasing effects (electron energy loss and energy spread increase) can be measured. By comparing images between FEL-on and FEL-off conditions, we can reconstruct the X-ray temporal profile for each lasing shot without interrupting FEL operation.
The deflector and camera can work at 120 Hz so each shot can be recorded. Presently the number of pixels in the energy (vertical) direction is limited to < 350 pixels at this rate. This is acceptable for hard X-ray modes where the full vertical range is not required. For soft X-rays, to avoid image truncation, the full ROI is preferred, but the camera must be acquired at 60Hz or less for beam-synchronous acquisition. Controls is working on these limitations and this will be updated once resolved.
The best temporal resolution measured is about 1 fs rms for soft X-rays (800 eV), and about 4 fs rms for hard X-rays (8 keV). Experimental results will be published soon in Nature Communications (a link will be added after publication). To record XTCAV data from the user side, in each machine configuration, MCC needs to perform calibrations and also suppress lasing for the user to record baseline (non-lasing) images. This may take a few minutes. After that, regular operation is resumed and XTCAV images are recorded at will. A configuration for the LCLS DAQ system is currently being finalized at which point more detailed documentation on data acquisition procedure and analysis will also be posted.